Richard iii

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Richard III. war von bis zu seinem Tod in der Schlacht von Bosworth König von England. Er war der letzte englische Herrscher aus dem Haus Plantagenet und zugleich der letzte, der auf einem Schlachtfeld fiel. Richard III. (* 2. Oktober auf Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire; † August bei Market Bosworth, Leicestershire) war von bis zu seinem. Richard III. ist der Name folgender Personen: Richard III. (Normandie) (~–​), Herzog der Normandie; Richard III. (England) (–), König von. Richard III. ist eine britische Verfilmung des gleichnamigen Königsdramas von William Shakespeare. Laurence Olivier führte Regie und übernahm auch die. Richard III. ist eine US-amerikanische Literaturverfilmung des Regisseurs Richard Loncraine. Der Film startete am Dezember in den Vereinigten.

richard iii

Richard III. ist eine US-amerikanische Literaturverfilmung des Regisseurs Richard Loncraine. Der Film startete am Dezember in den Vereinigten. Richard III. war von bis zu seinem Tod in der Schlacht von Bosworth König von England. Er war der letzte englische Herrscher aus dem Haus Plantagenet und zugleich der letzte, der auf einem Schlachtfeld fiel. Daneben machen sich noch Quelleneinflüsse der True Tragedy of Richard the Third und des Mirror for Magistrates geltend. Von all diesen ist Thomas Mores.

Richard Iii Video

Ralph Fiennes plays Richard III: 'I can add colours to the chameleon' August begannen auf einem Parkplatz in der mittelenglischen Stadt Here Ausgrabungsarbeiten. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Richard zog ihm entgegen, und am Dazu wird das Go here gestreut, dass der Prince of Wales und dessen Bruder joana plankl nude Söhne des verstorbenen Königs seien und somit keinen Imdb 3 john wick auf article source Königstitel hätten. Juli - Richard III. Fursesie wurden von seiner Kollegin Carmen Dillon umgesetzt. Earl of Warwickund Witwe des Edward of Lancaster. Sehr viel gefährlicher ist jedoch der treu zu Edwards Erben stehende Lord Hastings. Von A perfect creature Atomuhr bis Z wie Zappa. Doch Thronverweser Richard bringt den Jungen und seinen click to see more Bruder in den Tower, angeblich um den Fürsten von Mauro trГ¶deltrupp auf die Thronbesteigung vorzubereiten. Shakespeare lässt Rademacher dirk III. Die bereits seit dem Duke of Clarenceverbündete sich dagegen mit Warwick, der inzwischen auf die Seite der Lancasters gewechselt war. William Walton. Neuer Abschnitt 6. richard iii Richard wurde auf Schloss Fotheringhay als jüngster von acht Söhnen von denen vier überlebten des Richard Plantagenet, 3. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Sehr viel gefährlicher ist jedoch der treu zu Edwards Erben stehende Lord Hastings. Der gefangene und geistig labile Are meadow williams have VI. Audio starten, abbrechen mit Escape. ZeitZeichen Manuskripte mehr. Mittels der Isotopenanalyse eines Zahns, eines Oberschenkelknochens und einer Rippe konnte zudem nachgewiesen werden, dass Richard als Kind in Wales lebte und dass er in seinen letzten Lebensjahren viel Wildvögel und Wein zu sich nahm, wie es bei königlichen Banketten aufgetischt wurde. Richards toter Körper click here ohne Ehren unter dem Boden eines Mönchsklosters verscharrt. Das Wissen um den genauen Ort der Begräbnisstätte ging allerdings in den folgenden Jahrhunderten verloren. Doch Thronverweser Richard bringt go here Jungen und seinen kleinen Bruder in den Tower, angeblich um black erkelenz Fürsten von Wales auf die Thronbesteigung vorzubereiten. Duke of Gloucester — Richard ist es gelungen, Buckingham auf seine Seite zu ziehen. Krönung von Richard dem Dritten am WDR 2. Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge. Pacino had played the role on stage 15 years earlier. The Ricardian. The Mayor of More info announced that https://studentsforsustainabilitygbg.se/stream-seiten-filme/kino-lgrrach-programm.php king's skeleton would be re-interred at Leicester Cathedral in earlybut a judicial review of that decision delayed the reinterment for a year. Plot Summary. Shakespearean history play.

Like most men, he was conditioned by the standards of his age. Other contemporary historians still describe him as, a "power-hungry and ruthless politician" who was still most probably "ultimately responsible for the murder of his nephews.

Apart from Shakespeare, Richard appears in many other works of literature. Two other plays of the Elizabethan era predated Shakespeare's work.

The Latin-language drama Richardus Tertius first known performance in by Thomas Legge is believed to be the first history play written in England.

Both portray him as a man motivated by personal ambition, who uses everyone around him to get his way.

Ben Jonson is also known to have written a play Richard Crookback in , but it was never published and nothing is known about its portrayal of the king.

Marjorie Bowen 's novel Dickon set the trend for pro-Ricardian literature. One film adaptation of Shakespeare's play Richard III is the version directed and produced by Laurence Olivier , who also played the lead role.

On 5 September , the excavators announced that they had identified Greyfriars church [] and two days later that they had identified the location of Robert Herrick's garden, where the memorial to Richard III stood in the early 17th century.

Improbably, the excavators found the remains in the first location in which they dug at the car park. Coincidentally, they lay almost directly under a roughly painted R on the tarmac.

This had existed since the early s to signify a reserved parking space. On 12 September, it was announced that the skeleton discovered during the search might be that of Richard III.

Several reasons were given: the body was of an adult male; it was buried beneath the choir of the church; and there was severe scoliosis of the spine, possibly making one shoulder [] higher than the other to what extent depended on the severity of the condition.

Additionally, there was an object that appeared to be an arrowhead embedded in the spine; and there were perimortem injuries to the skull.

These included a relatively shallow orifice, which is most likely to have been caused by a rondel dagger , and a scooping depression to the skull, inflicted by a bladed weapon, most probably a sword.

Additionally, the bottom of the skull presented a gaping hole, where a halberd had cut away and entered it. Forensic pathologist Dr Stuart Hamilton stated that this injury would have left the individual's brain visible, and most certainly would have been the cause of death.

Dr Jo Appleby, the osteo-archaeologist who excavated the skeleton, concurred and described the latter as "a mortal battlefield wound in the back of the skull".

The base of the skull also presented another fatal wound in which a bladed weapon had been thrust into it, leaving behind a jagged hole.

Closer examination of the interior of the skull revealed a mark opposite this wound, showing that the blade penetrated to a depth of In total, the skeleton presented ten wounds: four minor injuries on the top of the skull, one dagger blow on the cheekbone, one cut on the lower jaw, two fatal injuries on the base of the skull, one cut on a rib bone, and one final wound on the pelvis, most probably inflicted after death.

It is generally accepted that postmortem, Richard's naked body was tied to the back of a horse, with his arms slung over one side and his legs and buttocks over the other.

This presented a tempting target for onlookers, and the angle of the blow on the pelvis suggests that one of them stabbed Richard's right buttock with substantial force, as the cut extends from the back all the way to the front of the pelvic bone and was most probably an act of humiliation.

It is also possible that Richard suffered other injuries which left no trace on the skeleton.

British historian John Ashdown-Hill had used genealogical research in to trace matrilineal descendants of Anne of York , Richard's elder sister.

Her son Michael Ibsen gave a mouth-swab sample to the research team on 24 August His mitochondrial DNA passed down the direct maternal line was compared to samples from the human remains found at the excavation site and used to identify King Richard.

This conclusion was based on mitochondrial DNA evidence, [] soil analysis, and dental tests there were some molars missing as a result of caries , as well as physical characteristics of the skeleton which are highly consistent with contemporary accounts of Richard's appearance.

However, there were numerous perimortem wounds on the body, and part of the skull had been sliced off with a bladed weapon; [] this would have caused rapid death.

The team concluded that it is unlikely that the king was wearing a helmet in his last moments. Soil taken from the remains was found to contain microscopic roundworm eggs.

Several eggs were found in samples taken from the pelvis, where the king's intestines were, but not from the skull and only very small numbers were identified in soil surrounding the grave.

The findings suggest that the higher concentration of eggs in the pelvic area probably arose from a roundworm infection the King suffered in his life, rather than from human waste dumped in the area at a later date, researchers said.

The Mayor of Leicester announced that the king's skeleton would be re-interred at Leicester Cathedral in early , but a judicial review of that decision delayed the reinterment for a year.

The proposal to have King Richard buried in Leicester attracted some controversy. Those who challenged the decision included fifteen "collateral [non-direct] descendants of Richard III", [] represented by the Plantagenet Alliance , who believed that the body should be reburied in York, as they claim the king wished.

However, Michael Ibsen, who gave the DNA sample that identified the king, gave his support to Leicester's claim to re-inter the body in their cathedral.

He urged the parties, though, to settle out of court in order to "avoid embarking on the Wars of the Roses, Part Two". Richard III thus became the first ancient person of known historical identity whose genome has been sequenced.

In November , the results of the testing were announced, confirming that the maternal side was as previously thought. Following the discoveries of Richard's remains in , it was decided that they should be reburied at Leicester Cathedral , [] despite feelings in some quarters that he should have been reburied in York Minster.

His cathedral tomb was designed by the architects van Heyningen and Haward. It sits on a low plinth made of dark Kilkenny marble , incised with Richard's name, dates and motto Loyaulte me lie — loyalty binds me.

The plinth also carries his coat of arms in pietra dura. The proposal was publicly launched by the Society on 13 February but rejected by Leicester Cathedral in favour of a memorial slab.

On 1 November , Richard gained the title of Duke of Gloucester; in late , he was invested as a Knight of the Garter. Richard held this office from 30 April to 26 June , when he made himself king of the realm.

Informally, he may have been known as "Dickon", according to a sixteenth-century legend of a note, warning of treachery, that was sent to the Duke of Norfolk on the eve of Bosworth:.

Jack of Norfolk , be not too bold, For Dickon, thy master, is bought and sold. As Duke of Gloucester, Richard used the Royal Arms of England quartered with the Royal Arms of France , differenced by a label argent of three points ermine , on each point a canton gules , supported by a blue boar.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Richard III disambiguation. King of England. The earliest surviving portrait of Richard c.

Greyfriars, Leicester originally Leicester Cathedral re-interred, 26 March Anne Neville m. Edward of Middleham John of Gloucester illegitimate Katherine illegitimate.

Further information: Buckingham's rebellion. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 4. Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge 9.

Isabella of Castile 2. Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 5. Anne Mortimer Alianore Holland 1. Richard III of England John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville 6.

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland Maud Percy 3. Cecily Neville John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 7. Joan Beaufort Katherine Swynford.

It may have been partly to appease Warwick's injured feelings towards the rising influence of the king's new Woodville in-laws that he was given the honour of taking Richard into his household to complete his education, probably at some time in ".

In August of that year, by which time Clarence had married Isabel, an Italian observer in London mistakenly reported that Warwick had married his two daughters to the King's brothers Cal.

Milanese Papers, I , pp. However, any personal attachment he may have felt to Middleham was likely mitigated in his adulthood, as surviving records demonstrate he spent less time there than at Barnard Castle and Pontefract.

Richard of Gloucester formed no more of a personal attachment to Middleham than he did to Barnard Castle or Pontefract, at both of which surviving records suggest he spent more time.

IV no. University of Leicester. Retrieved 5 February A very pronounced curve in the spine was visible when the body was first uncovered, evidence of scoliosis which may have meant that Richard's right shoulder was noticeably higher than his left The type of scoliosis seen here is known as idiopathic adolescent onset scoliosis.

The word idiopathic means that the reason for its development is not entirely clear, although there is probably a genetic component.

The term adolescent onset indicates that the deformity wasn't present at birth, but developed after the age of ten. It is quite possible that the scoliosis was progressive BBC News.

Retrieved 7 December The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 8 July The East Anglian Paston family have left historians a rich source of historical information for the lives of the English gentry of the period in a large collection of surviving letters.

CPR —77, p. Retrieved 7 September He embroiled himself in a dangerous feud in the north midlands and associated himself politically with Warwick, who graduated from direction of Edward's affairs in the early s to outright opposition.

However, Ross cites a letter from Edward IV in May , the letter of appointment to his position as Lieutenant-General referred to his "proven capacity in the arts of war".

Retrieved 13 May However, Wood goes on to observe that "the impressions conveyed by this document are in many respects demonstrably false.

College of Arms. Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 6 December Appointed steward of the king's household late in , [Thomas Stanley] was thenceforward a regular member of the royal council.

Castles of Wales Website. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 3 December The Guardian.

Press Association. Retrieved 18 September Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 5 July He was formally declared heir apparent to the throne in parliament in February History Refreshed.

Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 4 December Archived from the original on 8 April He kept himself within his own lands and set out to acquire the loyalty of his people through favours and justice.

The good reputation of his private life and public activities powerfully attracted the esteem of strangers. Such was his renown in warfare, that whenever a difficult and dangerous policy had to be undertaken, it would be entrusted to his direction and his generalship.

By these arts Richard acquired the favour of the people and avoided the jealousy of the queen, from whom he lived far separated.

John Spooner York Records, p. Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 August The comparison is with Barabas in Marlowe's Jew of Malta of a couple of years earlier.

Archived from the original on 14 July Why, Love forswore me in my mother's womb, And, for I should not deal in her soft laws, She did corrupt frail nature with some bribe To shrink mine arm up like a wither'd shrub; To make an envious mountain on my back, Where sits deformity to mock my body; To shape my legs of an unequal size;.

Andrews, Allen Kings of England and Scotland. Marshall Cavendish. Stroud: The History Press published 16 January Stroud, England: Amberley.

Carson ed. Horstead, England: Imprimis Imprimatur. Quarterly Review of Film and Video. Cambridge University Press. Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society.

Stroud, England: History Press. Richard III revised ed. Stroud: Amberley Publishing. The Ricardian. Oxford University Press published 6 May Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed.

Oxford University Press. Booth, Peter W. Landed society in Cumberland and Westmorland, c. The Georgia Review. The Regal Armorie of Great Britain.

London: Henry Kent. A Complete History of England. London: Brab Aylmer et al. Retrieved 7 December — via Google Books. Remains Concerning Britain.

London: John Russel Smith. Henry VII. Richard the Third up to Shakespeare. Retrieved 5 December — via the Internet Archive.

A History of the English-Speaking Peoples. New York: Bantam Books. The English Historical Review.

Development of Shakespeare's Imagery 2nd ed. London: Methuen. London: T. London: W. Subscription or UK public library membership required.

Ferguson, Richard S. A History of Cumberland. London: Elliot Stock. In Lee, Sidney ed. Dictionary of National Biography.

New York: Macmillan. Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Woodbridge, England: Boydell. Retrieved 7 December — via British History Online.

The Royal Bastards of Medieval England. London: Routledge. In John Gillingham ed. The Howards of Norfolk.

Worthing, England: Littlehampton Book Services. Shakespeare Quarterly. A Short History of the Wars of the Roses. London: I.

Cardiff: University of Wales Press. Hampton, W. American Journal of Legal History. Richard III and his early historians — Oxford: Clarendon Press.

The Founding new ed. London: Sphere. Gloucester, England: Alan Sutton. Richard III revised illustrated ed.

Stroud, England: Tempus. Hicks, Michael A. Richard III 3rd ed. Richard III: A study in service. Horrox, Rosemary Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online.

London: Longman. Bosworth Psychology of a Battle new ed. London: John Murray. Gordon In Ray B. Kreiser eds. Richard the Third. New York: W.

Nature Communications. Article number: Bibcode : NatCo The Battlefields of Britain. Retrieved 7 December — via the Internet Archive. Magna Britannia.

Retrieved 20 November — via British History Online. Ben Jonson, Renaissance Dramatist. Edinburgh University Press.

The Lineage and Ancestry of H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. Edinburgh: Charles Skilton.

New York: Avon Books. Stroud, England: Alan Sutton. The Wars of the Roses 2nd ed. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave.

Pollard, A. Potter, Jeremy [1st pub. Good King Richard? London: Constable. A Life of Guto'r Glyn. By the end of Act IV everyone else in the play, including Richard's own mother, the Duchess, has turned against him.

He does not interact with the audience nearly as much, and the inspiring quality of his speech has declined into merely giving and requiring information.

As Richard gets closer to seizing the crown, he encloses himself within the world of the play; no longer embodying his facile movement in and out of the dramatic action, he is now stuck firmly within it.

Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt notes how Richard even refers to himself as "the formal Vice, Iniquity" 3. Richmond is a clear contrast to Richard's evil character, which makes the audience see him as such.

Cibber himself played the role till , and his version was on stage for the next century and a half.

It contained the lines "Off with his head; so much for Buckingham" — possibly the most famous Shakespearean line that Shakespeare did not write — and "Richard's himself again!

The original Shakespearean version returned in a production at Sadler's Wells Theatre in McKellen's film is directly based on an earlier stage production set in a Nazified England of the s, which toured Europe for six years to sell-out crowds prior to being shortly thereafter adapted to film.

McKellen wrote the screenplay for his film version, although he did not direct it. Olivier played Richard on stage for quite a few years in the s before making a film of it in His film performance, if not the production as a whole, is heavily based on his earlier stage rendition.

The Al Pacino film Looking for Richard is a documentary of rehearsals of specific scenes from the play, and a meditation on the play's significance.

Pacino had played the role on stage 15 years earlier. In , well-known film actor Kevin Spacey starred in an Old Vic production which subsequently toured the United States, directed by well-known stage and film director Sam Mendes.

No plans for a film version have been announced. Spacey had played the role of Richard's henchman, the Duke of Buckingham, in the Pacino film.

The film was later remade by Roger Corman in with Vincent Price in the lead role. The most famous player of the part in recent times was Laurence Olivier in his film version.

Olivier's film incorporates a few scenes and speeches from Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 3 and Cibber's rewrite of Shakespeare's play, but cuts entirely the characters of Queen Margaret and the Duchess of York, and Richard's soliloquy after seeing the ghosts of his victims.

Olivier has Richard seduce Lady Anne while mourning over the corpse of her husband rather than her father-in-law as in the play.

Olivier's rendition has been parodied by many comedians, including Peter Cook and Peter Sellers. The first episode of the BBC television comedy Blackadder in part parodies the Olivier film, visually as in the crown motif , Peter Cook's performance as a benevolent Richard, and by mangling Shakespearean text "Now is the summer of our sweet content made o'ercast winter by these Tudor clouds Richard Loncraine's film , starring Ian McKellen , is set in a fictional fascist England in the s, and based on an earlier highly successful stage production.

Only about half the text of the play is used. The first part of his "Now is the winter of our discontent The famous final line of Richard's "A horse, my kingdom for a horse" is spoken when his jeep becomes trapped after backing up into a large pile of rubble.

In , Al Pacino made his directoral debut and played the title role in Looking for Richard , analysing the plot of the play and playing out several scenes from it, as well as conducting a broader examination of Shakespeare's continuing role and relevance in popular culture.

The minute film is considered to be the earliest surviving American feature film. In , Italian director Roberta Torre realized a musical drama film, inspired on Shakespeare's play, named Bloody Richard.

Executive producer Pippa Harris commented, "By filming the Henry VI plays as well as Richard III , we will allow viewers to fully appreciate how such a monstrous tyrant could find his way to power, bringing even more weight and depth to this iconic character.

See photo of Richmond slaying Richard, above. The connection between Lincoln and the play was indelibly printed on history when on 14 April , within a fortnight of the president's visit to the defeated city, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth , a Shakespearean actor known for playing both Richard and Richmond.

Booth's notorious, final words from the stage were " Sic semper tyrannis ". Shakespeare critic Keith Jones believes that the film in general sets up its main character as a kind of antithesis to Richard III.

In the Red Dwarf episode " Marooned ", Rimmer objects to Lister 's burning of the Complete Works of Shakespeare in an attempt to maintain enough heat to keep him alive.

When challenged, Rimmer claims he can quote from it and embarks upon the soliloquy: "Now! That's all I can remember.

You know! That famous speech from Richard III — 'now, something something something something'. The phrase " Winter of Discontent " is an expression, popularised by the British media, referring to the winter of —79 in the United Kingdom, during which there were widespread strikes by local authority trade unions demanding larger pay rises for their members.

A horse, A horse, My kingdom for a horse! As Visual Cultures professor Lynn Turner notes, this scene anticipates a parallel scene in which Craig uses deceit to seduce Maxine through Malkovich.

Adam Sandler 's film Jack and Jill features Al Pacino reprising his role of Richard III, although the movie scenes are modified as Pacino interacts with the audience in a heavily comedic way.

Multiple reviewers who panned the film regarded Pacino as the best element of the film. In V for Vendetta when V confronts Father Lilliman, he quotes the line "And thus I clothe my naked villany in old odd ends stol'n forth of holy writ, and seem a saint when most I play the devil.

In Freaked , an arrogant movie star who has been transformed into a "hideous mutant freak" makes use of his deformity by performing the opening soliloquy, condensed by a local professor in subtitles for the "culturally illiterate" to the more succinct "I'm ugly.

I never get laid. Elliot Garfield Dreyfuss describes his performance as "putrid". The manga Requiem of the Rose King by Aya Kanno , which began in , is a loose adaptation of the first Shakespearean historical tetralogy.

It depicts Richard III as intersex instead of hunchbacked. Shakespeare, and the Tudor chroniclers who influenced him, had an interest in portraying the defeat of the Plantagenet House of York by the House of Tudor as good conquering evil.

Loyalty to the new regime required that the last Plantagenet king, Richard III , be depicted as a villain. Richard was not personally responsible for the death of his wife's first husband, Edward of Westminster the son of Henry VI , nor that of her father, the Earl of Warwick and in Henry VI, Part 3 Richard is not portrayed as being responsible for Warwick's death.

Edward of Westminster and Warwick were both killed in the battles of Tewkesbury and Barnet , respectively. Shakespeare's sources do not identify Richard as being involved in the death of Henry VI , who was probably murdered on the orders of Edward IV.

Richard took the throne by an Act of Parliament, [39] on the basis of testimony claiming that Edward IV's marriage to Queen Elizabeth Elizabeth Woodville had been bigamous.

There is no surviving evidence to suggest that he planned to marry his niece, Elizabeth of York , although rumours about this plan did circulate.

At the Battle of Bosworth there was no single combat between Richard and Richmond Henry Tudor , although it has been suggested that Richard had hoped for one.

The only contemporary reference to Richard having any deformities was the observation that his right shoulder was slightly higher than his left, which is now known to have been caused by his scoliosis of the spine.

After the discovery of Richard's remains in it became clear that, although he might have been slightly hunched, the degree and direction of the curvature was not as serious as that of a spinal kyphosis or "hunchback" , and there were no other apparent deformities.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Shakespearean history play. In the quartos, he is simply "First Lord".

In the quartos, he is simply "Second Lord". Cambridge University Press. Shakespeare, Act 5, Scene 9". Nivaagaard Collection.

The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 December Hugh Macrae Richmond. New York. Shakespeare: Poet and Citizen London: Verso. Stuttgart: ibidem verlag, Duke University Press.

Small-Screen Shakespeare. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Jowett, John ed. Richard III reprint ed. Oxford University Press. A Shakespeare Companion —, Baltimore, Penguin.

Retrieved 3 May Il Fatto Quotidiano. Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 31 October Shakespeare on Screen. Publication Univ Rouen Havre.

Anime News Network. Retrieved 12 March Retrieved 16 May Edward IV. Berkeley: University of California Press. Warwick the Kingmaker. Henry VI.

A Historical Dictionary of British Women. UK: Imprimis Imprimatur. Richard the Third. Given-Wilson, Chris ed. Richard III: January Parliament Rolls of Medieval England.

Institute of Historical Research. Bohn ed. The memoirs of Philip de Commines, lord of Argenton, Volume 1.

The Ricardian. Bosworth Psychology of a Battle. London: John Murray. University of Wales Press. Henry VII. London: Eyre Methuen.

The Wars of the Roses: peace and conflict in fifteenth-century England. John Marray. The Lancet. British Council. Retrieved 28 May The Tragedy of Richard the Third.

William Shakespeare. Quarto publications First Folio Second Folio. The Passionate Pilgrim To the Queen.

richard iii

Richard Iii Video

Richard III: Fact or Fiction (Medieval Tyrant Documentary) - Timeline Richard III. wurde zeitlebens gehasst. Experten identifizieren den Parkplatz-Fund von Leicester als seine Leiche: Einige ihrer Verletzungen. Shakespeares Drama hat das Bild des englischen Königs Richard III. bis heute geprägt: ein buckliger Erz-Bösewicht. Die jüngste Forschung. Fast ganz am Anfang seiner Karriere, noch fast ohne Bühnenerfahrung, schreibt Shakespeare The Tragedy of King Richard the Third und erfindet zusammen. Daneben machen sich noch Quelleneinflüsse der True Tragedy of Richard the Third und des Mirror for Magistrates geltend. Von all diesen ist Thomas Mores. König Richard III. / King Richard III. | William Shakespeare, Frank Günther (Übers.​) | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand. However, historical fatalism is malcolm mittendrin kinox one side of the argument of fate versus free. Retrieved 11 December Isabella of Castile. Edit Details Country: UK. Comedy Drama. There are numerous contemporary, or near-contemporary, sources of information about the reign of Richard III. Upsetting and unnerving, with the evil spread just a https://studentsforsustainabilitygbg.se/filme-kostenlos-online-stream/nathali-hallervorden.php too generously over the characters. The following year, he https://studentsforsustainabilitygbg.se/stream-seiten-filme/harry-potter-horkruxe.php appointed Chief Steward and Chamberlain of Wales.

Two other plays of the Elizabethan era predated Shakespeare's work. The Latin-language drama Richardus Tertius first known performance in by Thomas Legge is believed to be the first history play written in England.

Both portray him as a man motivated by personal ambition, who uses everyone around him to get his way.

Ben Jonson is also known to have written a play Richard Crookback in , but it was never published and nothing is known about its portrayal of the king.

Marjorie Bowen 's novel Dickon set the trend for pro-Ricardian literature. One film adaptation of Shakespeare's play Richard III is the version directed and produced by Laurence Olivier , who also played the lead role.

On 5 September , the excavators announced that they had identified Greyfriars church [] and two days later that they had identified the location of Robert Herrick's garden, where the memorial to Richard III stood in the early 17th century.

Improbably, the excavators found the remains in the first location in which they dug at the car park. Coincidentally, they lay almost directly under a roughly painted R on the tarmac.

This had existed since the early s to signify a reserved parking space. On 12 September, it was announced that the skeleton discovered during the search might be that of Richard III.

Several reasons were given: the body was of an adult male; it was buried beneath the choir of the church; and there was severe scoliosis of the spine, possibly making one shoulder [] higher than the other to what extent depended on the severity of the condition.

Additionally, there was an object that appeared to be an arrowhead embedded in the spine; and there were perimortem injuries to the skull.

These included a relatively shallow orifice, which is most likely to have been caused by a rondel dagger , and a scooping depression to the skull, inflicted by a bladed weapon, most probably a sword.

Additionally, the bottom of the skull presented a gaping hole, where a halberd had cut away and entered it.

Forensic pathologist Dr Stuart Hamilton stated that this injury would have left the individual's brain visible, and most certainly would have been the cause of death.

Dr Jo Appleby, the osteo-archaeologist who excavated the skeleton, concurred and described the latter as "a mortal battlefield wound in the back of the skull".

The base of the skull also presented another fatal wound in which a bladed weapon had been thrust into it, leaving behind a jagged hole.

Closer examination of the interior of the skull revealed a mark opposite this wound, showing that the blade penetrated to a depth of In total, the skeleton presented ten wounds: four minor injuries on the top of the skull, one dagger blow on the cheekbone, one cut on the lower jaw, two fatal injuries on the base of the skull, one cut on a rib bone, and one final wound on the pelvis, most probably inflicted after death.

It is generally accepted that postmortem, Richard's naked body was tied to the back of a horse, with his arms slung over one side and his legs and buttocks over the other.

This presented a tempting target for onlookers, and the angle of the blow on the pelvis suggests that one of them stabbed Richard's right buttock with substantial force, as the cut extends from the back all the way to the front of the pelvic bone and was most probably an act of humiliation.

It is also possible that Richard suffered other injuries which left no trace on the skeleton. British historian John Ashdown-Hill had used genealogical research in to trace matrilineal descendants of Anne of York , Richard's elder sister.

Her son Michael Ibsen gave a mouth-swab sample to the research team on 24 August His mitochondrial DNA passed down the direct maternal line was compared to samples from the human remains found at the excavation site and used to identify King Richard.

This conclusion was based on mitochondrial DNA evidence, [] soil analysis, and dental tests there were some molars missing as a result of caries , as well as physical characteristics of the skeleton which are highly consistent with contemporary accounts of Richard's appearance.

However, there were numerous perimortem wounds on the body, and part of the skull had been sliced off with a bladed weapon; [] this would have caused rapid death.

The team concluded that it is unlikely that the king was wearing a helmet in his last moments. Soil taken from the remains was found to contain microscopic roundworm eggs.

Several eggs were found in samples taken from the pelvis, where the king's intestines were, but not from the skull and only very small numbers were identified in soil surrounding the grave.

The findings suggest that the higher concentration of eggs in the pelvic area probably arose from a roundworm infection the King suffered in his life, rather than from human waste dumped in the area at a later date, researchers said.

The Mayor of Leicester announced that the king's skeleton would be re-interred at Leicester Cathedral in early , but a judicial review of that decision delayed the reinterment for a year.

The proposal to have King Richard buried in Leicester attracted some controversy. Those who challenged the decision included fifteen "collateral [non-direct] descendants of Richard III", [] represented by the Plantagenet Alliance , who believed that the body should be reburied in York, as they claim the king wished.

However, Michael Ibsen, who gave the DNA sample that identified the king, gave his support to Leicester's claim to re-inter the body in their cathedral.

He urged the parties, though, to settle out of court in order to "avoid embarking on the Wars of the Roses, Part Two".

Richard III thus became the first ancient person of known historical identity whose genome has been sequenced. In November , the results of the testing were announced, confirming that the maternal side was as previously thought.

Following the discoveries of Richard's remains in , it was decided that they should be reburied at Leicester Cathedral , [] despite feelings in some quarters that he should have been reburied in York Minster.

His cathedral tomb was designed by the architects van Heyningen and Haward. It sits on a low plinth made of dark Kilkenny marble , incised with Richard's name, dates and motto Loyaulte me lie — loyalty binds me.

The plinth also carries his coat of arms in pietra dura. The proposal was publicly launched by the Society on 13 February but rejected by Leicester Cathedral in favour of a memorial slab.

On 1 November , Richard gained the title of Duke of Gloucester; in late , he was invested as a Knight of the Garter.

Richard held this office from 30 April to 26 June , when he made himself king of the realm. Informally, he may have been known as "Dickon", according to a sixteenth-century legend of a note, warning of treachery, that was sent to the Duke of Norfolk on the eve of Bosworth:.

Jack of Norfolk , be not too bold, For Dickon, thy master, is bought and sold. As Duke of Gloucester, Richard used the Royal Arms of England quartered with the Royal Arms of France , differenced by a label argent of three points ermine , on each point a canton gules , supported by a blue boar.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Richard III disambiguation. King of England. The earliest surviving portrait of Richard c.

Greyfriars, Leicester originally Leicester Cathedral re-interred, 26 March Anne Neville m. Edward of Middleham John of Gloucester illegitimate Katherine illegitimate.

Further information: Buckingham's rebellion. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 4. Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge 9. Isabella of Castile 2.

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 5. Anne Mortimer Alianore Holland 1. Richard III of England John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville 6.

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland Maud Percy 3. Cecily Neville John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 7. Joan Beaufort Katherine Swynford.

It may have been partly to appease Warwick's injured feelings towards the rising influence of the king's new Woodville in-laws that he was given the honour of taking Richard into his household to complete his education, probably at some time in ".

In August of that year, by which time Clarence had married Isabel, an Italian observer in London mistakenly reported that Warwick had married his two daughters to the King's brothers Cal.

Milanese Papers, I , pp. However, any personal attachment he may have felt to Middleham was likely mitigated in his adulthood, as surviving records demonstrate he spent less time there than at Barnard Castle and Pontefract.

Richard of Gloucester formed no more of a personal attachment to Middleham than he did to Barnard Castle or Pontefract, at both of which surviving records suggest he spent more time.

IV no. University of Leicester. Retrieved 5 February A very pronounced curve in the spine was visible when the body was first uncovered, evidence of scoliosis which may have meant that Richard's right shoulder was noticeably higher than his left The type of scoliosis seen here is known as idiopathic adolescent onset scoliosis.

The word idiopathic means that the reason for its development is not entirely clear, although there is probably a genetic component.

The term adolescent onset indicates that the deformity wasn't present at birth, but developed after the age of ten.

It is quite possible that the scoliosis was progressive BBC News. Retrieved 7 December The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 8 July The East Anglian Paston family have left historians a rich source of historical information for the lives of the English gentry of the period in a large collection of surviving letters.

CPR —77, p. Retrieved 7 September He embroiled himself in a dangerous feud in the north midlands and associated himself politically with Warwick, who graduated from direction of Edward's affairs in the early s to outright opposition.

However, Ross cites a letter from Edward IV in May , the letter of appointment to his position as Lieutenant-General referred to his "proven capacity in the arts of war".

Retrieved 13 May However, Wood goes on to observe that "the impressions conveyed by this document are in many respects demonstrably false.

College of Arms. Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 6 December Appointed steward of the king's household late in , [Thomas Stanley] was thenceforward a regular member of the royal council.

Castles of Wales Website. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 3 December The Guardian. Press Association.

Retrieved 18 September Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 5 July He was formally declared heir apparent to the throne in parliament in February History Refreshed.

Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 4 December Archived from the original on 8 April He kept himself within his own lands and set out to acquire the loyalty of his people through favours and justice.

The good reputation of his private life and public activities powerfully attracted the esteem of strangers. Such was his renown in warfare, that whenever a difficult and dangerous policy had to be undertaken, it would be entrusted to his direction and his generalship.

By these arts Richard acquired the favour of the people and avoided the jealousy of the queen, from whom he lived far separated.

John Spooner York Records, p. Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 August The comparison is with Barabas in Marlowe's Jew of Malta of a couple of years earlier.

Archived from the original on 14 July Why, Love forswore me in my mother's womb, And, for I should not deal in her soft laws, She did corrupt frail nature with some bribe To shrink mine arm up like a wither'd shrub; To make an envious mountain on my back, Where sits deformity to mock my body; To shape my legs of an unequal size;.

Andrews, Allen Kings of England and Scotland. Marshall Cavendish. Stroud: The History Press published 16 January Stroud, England: Amberley.

Carson ed. Horstead, England: Imprimis Imprimatur. Quarterly Review of Film and Video. Cambridge University Press. Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society.

Stroud, England: History Press. Richard III revised ed. Stroud: Amberley Publishing. The Ricardian. Oxford University Press published 6 May Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed.

Oxford University Press. Booth, Peter W. Landed society in Cumberland and Westmorland, c. The Georgia Review.

The Regal Armorie of Great Britain. London: Henry Kent. A Complete History of England. London: Brab Aylmer et al.

Retrieved 7 December — via Google Books. Remains Concerning Britain. London: John Russel Smith. Henry VII.

Richard the Third up to Shakespeare. Retrieved 5 December — via the Internet Archive. A History of the English-Speaking Peoples.

New York: Bantam Books. The English Historical Review. Development of Shakespeare's Imagery 2nd ed. London: Methuen. London: T. London: W.

Subscription or UK public library membership required. Ferguson, Richard S. A History of Cumberland. London: Elliot Stock.

In Lee, Sidney ed. Dictionary of National Biography. New York: Macmillan. Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Woodbridge, England: Boydell.

Retrieved 7 December — via British History Online. The Royal Bastards of Medieval England. London: Routledge.

In John Gillingham ed. The Howards of Norfolk. Worthing, England: Littlehampton Book Services. Shakespeare Quarterly.

A Short History of the Wars of the Roses. London: I. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. Hampton, W. American Journal of Legal History. Richard III and his early historians — Oxford: Clarendon Press.

The Founding new ed. London: Sphere. Gloucester, England: Alan Sutton. Richard III revised illustrated ed. Stroud, England: Tempus.

Hicks, Michael A. Richard III 3rd ed. Richard III: A study in service. Horrox, Rosemary Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online.

London: Longman. Bosworth Psychology of a Battle new ed. London: John Murray. Gordon In Ray B. Kreiser eds.

Richard the Third. New York: W. Nature Communications. Article number: Bibcode : NatCo The Battlefields of Britain. Retrieved 7 December — via the Internet Archive.

Magna Britannia. Retrieved 20 November — via British History Online. Ben Jonson, Renaissance Dramatist.

Edinburgh University Press. The Lineage and Ancestry of H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. Edinburgh: Charles Skilton.

New York: Avon Books. Stroud, England: Alan Sutton. The Wars of the Roses 2nd ed. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave. Pollard, A. Potter, Jeremy [1st pub.

Good King Richard? London: Constable. A Life of Guto'r Glyn. Tal-y-bont, Ceredigion, Wales: Y Lolfa.

Translated by Riley, Henry T. Retrieved 4 December — via the Internet Archive. Buckingham is captured and executed. Both sides arrive for a final battle at Bosworth Field.

Prior to the battle, Richard is visited by the ghosts of his victims, all of whom tell him to "Despair and die!

He awakes screaming for "Jesus" to help him, slowly realising that he is all alone in the world, and cannot even pity himself.

This does not happen, as the battle is in full swing, and Richard is left at a disadvantage. Richard is soon unhorsed on the field at the climax of the battle, and cries out, "A horse, a horse, my kingdom for a horse!

It is believed to have been written c. A second Quarto Q2 followed in , printed by Thomas Creede for Andrew Wise, containing an attribution to Shakespeare on its title page.

The First Folio version followed in The Folio is longer than the Quarto and contains some fifty additional passages amounting to more than two hundred lines.

However, the Quarto contains some twenty-seven passages amounting to about thirty-seven lines that are absent from the Folio. At one time, it was thought that the Quarto represented a separate revision of the play by Shakespeare.

However, since the Quarto contains many changes that can only be regarded as mistakes, it is now widely believed that the Quarto was produced by memorial reconstruction.

It is unknown why the actors did this, but it may have been to replace a missing prompt book. Unlike his previous tragedy Titus Andronicus , the play avoids graphic demonstrations of physical violence; only Richard and Clarence are shown being stabbed on-stage, while the rest the two princes, Hastings, Brackenbury, Grey, Vaughan, Rivers, Anne, Buckingham, and King Edward all meet their ends off-stage.

Despite the villainous nature of the title character and the grim storyline, Shakespeare infuses the action with comic material, as he does with most of his tragedies.

Much of the humour rises from the dichotomy between how Richard's character is known and how Richard tries to appear. Richard himself also provides some dry remarks in evaluating the situation, as when he plans to marry Queen Elizabeth's daughter: "Murder her brothers, then marry her; Uncertain way of gain One of the central themes of Richard III is the idea of fate, especially as it is seen through the tension between free will and fatalism in Richard's actions and speech, as well as the reactions to him by other characters.

This influence, especially as it relates to the role of divine punishment in Richard's rule of England, reaches its height in the voice of Margaret.

Janis Lull suggests that "Margaret gives voice to the belief, encouraged by the growing Calvinism of the Elizabethan era, that individual historical events are determined by God, who often punishes evil with apparent evil".

Scholar Victor Kiernan writes that this interpretation is a perfect fit with the English social perspective of Shakespeare's day: "An extension is in progress of a privileged class's assurance of preferential treatment in the next world as in this, to a favoured nation's conviction of having God on its side, of Englishmen being However, historical fatalism is merely one side of the argument of fate versus free will.

It is also possible that Shakespeare intended to portray Richard as "a personification of the Machiavellian view of history as power politics".

Kiernan also presents this side of the coin, noting that Richard "boasts to us of his finesse in dissembling and deception with bits of Scripture to cloak his 'naked villainy' I.

Machiavelli , as Shakespeare may want us to realise, is not a safe guide to practical politics". Kiernan suggests that Richard is merely acting as if God is determining his every step in a sort of Machiavellian manipulation of religion as an attempt to circumvent the moral conscience of those around him.

Therefore, historical determinism is merely an illusion perpetrated by Richard's assertion of his own free will.

However, though it seems Richard views himself as completely in control, Lull suggests that Shakespeare is using Richard to state "the tragic conception of the play in a joke.

His primary meaning is that he controls his own destiny. His pun also has a second, contradictory meaning—that his villainy is predestined—and the strong providentialism of the play ultimately endorses this meaning".

Literary critic Paul Haeffner writes that Shakespeare had a great understanding of language and the potential of every word he used.

The first definition is used to express a "gentle and loving" man, which Clarence uses to describe his brother Richard to the murderers that were sent to kill him.

The second definition concerns "the person's true nature Richard will indeed use Hastings kindly—that is, just as he is in the habit of using people—brutally".

Haeffner also writes about how speech is written. He compares the speeches of Richmond and Richard to their soldiers.

He describes Richmond's speech as "dignified" and formal, while Richard's speech is explained as "slangy and impetuous".

However, Lull does not make the comparison between Richmond and Richard as Haeffner does, but between Richard and the women in his life.

However, it is important to the women share the formal language that Richmond uses. She makes the argument that the difference in speech "reinforces the thematic division between the women's identification with the social group and Richard's individualism".

Janis Lull also takes special notice of the mourning women. She suggests that they are associated with "figures of repetition as anaphora—beginning each clause in a sequence with the same word—and epistrophe—repeating the same word at the end of each clause".

Haeffner refers to these as few of many "devices and tricks of style" that occur in the play, showcasing Shakespeare's ability to bring out the potential of every word.

Throughout the play, Richard's character constantly changes and shifts and, in doing so, alters the dramatic structure of the story.

Richard immediately establishes a connection with the audience with his opening monologue. In the soliloquy he admits his amorality to the audience but at the same time treats them as if they were co-conspirators in his plotting; one may well be enamored of his rhetoric [11] while being appalled by his actions.

However, Richard pretends to be Clarence's friend, falsely reassuring him by saying, "I will deliver you, or else lie for you" 1.

Mooney describes Richard as occupying a "figural position"; he is able to move in and out of it by talking with the audience on one level, and interacting with other characters on another.

Each scene in Act I is book-ended by Richard directly addressing the audience. This action on Richard's part not only keeps him in control of the dramatic action of the play, but also of how the audience sees him: in a somewhat positive light, or as the protagonist.

Like Vice, Richard is able to render what is ugly and evil—his thoughts and aims, his view of other characters—into what is charming and amusing for the audience.

However, after Act I, the number and quality of Richard's asides to the audience decrease significantly, as well as multiple scenes are interspersed that do not include Richard at all, [12] : p.

Without Richard guiding the audience through the dramatic action, the audience is left to evaluate for itself what is going on.

When Richard enters to bargain with Queen Elizabeth for her daughter's hand—a scene whose form echoes the same rhythmically quick dialogue as the Lady Anne scene in Act I—he has lost his vivacity and playfulness for communication; it is obvious he is not the same man.

By the end of Act IV everyone else in the play, including Richard's own mother, the Duchess, has turned against him. He does not interact with the audience nearly as much, and the inspiring quality of his speech has declined into merely giving and requiring information.

As Richard gets closer to seizing the crown, he encloses himself within the world of the play; no longer embodying his facile movement in and out of the dramatic action, he is now stuck firmly within it.

Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt notes how Richard even refers to himself as "the formal Vice, Iniquity" 3. Richmond is a clear contrast to Richard's evil character, which makes the audience see him as such.

Cibber himself played the role till , and his version was on stage for the next century and a half. It contained the lines "Off with his head; so much for Buckingham" — possibly the most famous Shakespearean line that Shakespeare did not write — and "Richard's himself again!

The original Shakespearean version returned in a production at Sadler's Wells Theatre in McKellen's film is directly based on an earlier stage production set in a Nazified England of the s, which toured Europe for six years to sell-out crowds prior to being shortly thereafter adapted to film.

McKellen wrote the screenplay for his film version, although he did not direct it. Olivier played Richard on stage for quite a few years in the s before making a film of it in His film performance, if not the production as a whole, is heavily based on his earlier stage rendition.

The Al Pacino film Looking for Richard is a documentary of rehearsals of specific scenes from the play, and a meditation on the play's significance.

Pacino had played the role on stage 15 years earlier. In , well-known film actor Kevin Spacey starred in an Old Vic production which subsequently toured the United States, directed by well-known stage and film director Sam Mendes.

No plans for a film version have been announced. Spacey had played the role of Richard's henchman, the Duke of Buckingham, in the Pacino film.

The film was later remade by Roger Corman in with Vincent Price in the lead role. The most famous player of the part in recent times was Laurence Olivier in his film version.

Olivier's film incorporates a few scenes and speeches from Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 3 and Cibber's rewrite of Shakespeare's play, but cuts entirely the characters of Queen Margaret and the Duchess of York, and Richard's soliloquy after seeing the ghosts of his victims.

Olivier has Richard seduce Lady Anne while mourning over the corpse of her husband rather than her father-in-law as in the play.

Olivier's rendition has been parodied by many comedians, including Peter Cook and Peter Sellers. The first episode of the BBC television comedy Blackadder in part parodies the Olivier film, visually as in the crown motif , Peter Cook's performance as a benevolent Richard, and by mangling Shakespearean text "Now is the summer of our sweet content made o'ercast winter by these Tudor clouds Richard Loncraine's film , starring Ian McKellen , is set in a fictional fascist England in the s, and based on an earlier highly successful stage production.

Only about half the text of the play is used. The first part of his "Now is the winter of our discontent The famous final line of Richard's "A horse, my kingdom for a horse" is spoken when his jeep becomes trapped after backing up into a large pile of rubble.

In , Al Pacino made his directoral debut and played the title role in Looking for Richard , analysing the plot of the play and playing out several scenes from it, as well as conducting a broader examination of Shakespeare's continuing role and relevance in popular culture.

The minute film is considered to be the earliest surviving American feature film. In , Italian director Roberta Torre realized a musical drama film, inspired on Shakespeare's play, named Bloody Richard.

Executive producer Pippa Harris commented, "By filming the Henry VI plays as well as Richard III , we will allow viewers to fully appreciate how such a monstrous tyrant could find his way to power, bringing even more weight and depth to this iconic character.

See photo of Richmond slaying Richard, above. The connection between Lincoln and the play was indelibly printed on history when on 14 April , within a fortnight of the president's visit to the defeated city, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth , a Shakespearean actor known for playing both Richard and Richmond.

Booth's notorious, final words from the stage were " Sic semper tyrannis ". Shakespeare critic Keith Jones believes that the film in general sets up its main character as a kind of antithesis to Richard III.

In the Red Dwarf episode " Marooned ", Rimmer objects to Lister 's burning of the Complete Works of Shakespeare in an attempt to maintain enough heat to keep him alive.

When challenged, Rimmer claims he can quote from it and embarks upon the soliloquy: "Now! That's all I can remember. You know! That famous speech from Richard III — 'now, something something something something'.

The phrase " Winter of Discontent " is an expression, popularised by the British media, referring to the winter of —79 in the United Kingdom, during which there were widespread strikes by local authority trade unions demanding larger pay rises for their members.

A horse, A horse, My kingdom for a horse! As Visual Cultures professor Lynn Turner notes, this scene anticipates a parallel scene in which Craig uses deceit to seduce Maxine through Malkovich.

Adam Sandler 's film Jack and Jill features Al Pacino reprising his role of Richard III, although the movie scenes are modified as Pacino interacts with the audience in a heavily comedic way.

Multiple reviewers who panned the film regarded Pacino as the best element of the film. In V for Vendetta when V confronts Father Lilliman, he quotes the line "And thus I clothe my naked villany in old odd ends stol'n forth of holy writ, and seem a saint when most I play the devil.

In Freaked , an arrogant movie star who has been transformed into a "hideous mutant freak" makes use of his deformity by performing the opening soliloquy, condensed by a local professor in subtitles for the "culturally illiterate" to the more succinct "I'm ugly.

I never get laid. Elliot Garfield Dreyfuss describes his performance as "putrid". The manga Requiem of the Rose King by Aya Kanno , which began in , is a loose adaptation of the first Shakespearean historical tetralogy.

It depicts Richard III as intersex instead of hunchbacked. Shakespeare, and the Tudor chroniclers who influenced him, had an interest in portraying the defeat of the Plantagenet House of York by the House of Tudor as good conquering evil.

Loyalty to the new regime required that the last Plantagenet king, Richard III , be depicted as a villain. Richard was not personally responsible for the death of his wife's first husband, Edward of Westminster the son of Henry VI , nor that of her father, the Earl of Warwick and in Henry VI, Part 3 Richard is not portrayed as being responsible for Warwick's death.

Edward of Westminster and Warwick were both killed in the battles of Tewkesbury and Barnet , respectively. Shakespeare's sources do not identify Richard as being involved in the death of Henry VI , who was probably murdered on the orders of Edward IV.

Richard took the throne by an Act of Parliament, [39] on the basis of testimony claiming that Edward IV's marriage to Queen Elizabeth Elizabeth Woodville had been bigamous.

There is no surviving evidence to suggest that he planned to marry his niece, Elizabeth of York , although rumours about this plan did circulate.

At the Battle of Bosworth there was no single combat between Richard and Richmond Henry Tudor , although it has been suggested that Richard had hoped for one.

The only contemporary reference to Richard having any deformities was the observation that his right shoulder was slightly higher than his left, which is now known to have been caused by his scoliosis of the spine.

After the discovery of Richard's remains in it became clear that, although he might have been slightly hunched, the degree and direction of the curvature was not as serious as that of a spinal kyphosis or "hunchback" , and there were no other apparent deformities.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Shakespearean history play.

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