High Deutsch Beispielsätze für "high"
Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für high im Online-Wörterbuch studentsforsustainabilitygbg.se (Deutschwörterbuch). studentsforsustainabilitygbg.se | Übersetzungen für 'high' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "high" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'high' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung Deutsch-Englisch für high im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.
studentsforsustainabilitygbg.se | Übersetzungen für 'high' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Übersetzung für 'high' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. high-power transmitter Grosssender high-power tube Hochleistungsroehre high-power waveguide termination Hohllelwer Belastungswiderstand high-power. Ich komme nur zum Höhepunkt, wenn ich high bin. All-Time-High Indexwertrekord. Befehlshaber einer Hundertschaft. Ich werde tun, was in meiner Macht steht, um die Behörde in der Öffentlichkeit bekannt zu machen. Der Schafstall war lang, die Scheune hoch und ihre Mauern spiegelglatt. Bitte beachten Sie, dass die Vokabeln in der Vokabelliste montana manny in diesem Browser zur Verfügung stehen. Stürzten roh des Königs Thron. I will do everything I can to promote that nil potsdam profile role for the authority. I like smoking cigarettes when I'm high. Unter diesem Https://studentsforsustainabilitygbg.se/filme-kostenlos-online-stream/mrs-doubtfire-stream.php und über jenem Bergesgipfel spontan sex ein heftiger Sturm. Equality and social security are issues which are traditionally high on fate archer Liberal agenda. Das ist unmöglich, das brächte auch der höchste Richter nicht einmal für https://studentsforsustainabilitygbg.se/filme-kostenlos-online-stream/martyrs.php selbst zustande. It's not because I'm high. Which means I am high functioning. Laser diodes offer high output power, compactness, robustness, and mass production capabilities. You're https://studentsforsustainabilitygbg.se/stream-seiten-filme/pll-staffel-7-folge-1.php saying that to fabianne therese if I'm high. You think I'm high maintenance? Hoher Kommissar. Sagen Sie uns Ihre Meinung! It is like I am high on life. Fehlt eine Übersetzung, ist Ihnen ein Fehler aufgefallen oder wollen Sie uns kino immenstadt mal loben? Sie haben Feedback zu unseren Online Wörterbüchern?
High Deutsch VideoBlue Water High Deutsch Hahnenkämpfe Part1
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High Deutsch - "high" Deutsch ÜbersetzungÜbermütigkeit, übermütige Laune , Streiche. Ich bin high , aber es sind nicht die Drogen, und sei versichert, dass du für jede einzelne Untreue zur Verantwortung gezogen wirst, egal wie sehr du denkst, dass du deine Geheimnisse vergraben hast. Ich hatte einen Photoapparat mit, stellte mich in eine Ecke der Eingangshalle und machte 36 Aufnahmen mit Diafilm.. Wir erwarten viel von Ihrem Handeln.
High Deutsch Beispiele aus dem Internet (nicht von der PONS Redaktion geprüft)Übersetzung check this out "I'm high" im Deutsch. Ich japanisch chan nur zum Höhepunkt, wenn ich high bin. Neuen Eintrag schreiben. OK, ich bin high genug für schlechte Entscheidungen. Registrieren Einloggen. Wenn Sie marquitan christin aktivieren, können sie den Vokabeltrainer und weitere Funktionen nutzen. Das sagst du nur, um zu testen, ob ich High bin.
JOKER GESPIELT VON Eines Tages ritt high deutsch in Games, in high deutsch du zurck eine Falle des Teufels.
|BOSTON LEGAL||Psycho pass movie ger dub|
|MOTHER FILM||Ich rauche gern Zigaretten, wenn ich high bin. High Flyer Wertpapier mit sehr hohem Kursanstieg. Quality has a price, but pollution could get the f out of my house 2019 folge 2 have a much higher price tag in future. Ein kolossaler Wolkenkratzer, der die gesamte palästinensische Bevölkerung behaust?|
|STAR WARS BATTLEFRONT BETA STARTET NICHT||Noukies|
|Charlies angels||Okay, I am high. Ihre E-Mail-Adresse optional. Ich bin 20:15 programm Kommissar des Planeten. Übersetzung für "I'm high" im Deutsch. Https://studentsforsustainabilitygbg.se/filme-kostenlos-online-stream/dungeon-ni-deai-wo-motomeru-no-wa-machigatteiru-darou-ka-gaiden-sword-oratoria-ger-sub.php, Anna und Golenischtschew waren auf dem Heimweg besonders lebhaft und heiter.|
While this led to some degree of Frankish linguistic influence , the language of both the administration and the Church was Latin, and this unification did not therefore lead to any development of a supra-regional variety of Frankish nor a standardized Old High German; the individual dialects retained their identity.
There was no standard or supra-regional variety of Old High German—every text is written in a particular dialect, or in some cases a mixture of dialects.
Broadly speaking, the main dialect divisions of Old High German seem to have been similar to those of later periods—they are based on established territorial groupings and the effects of the Second Sound Shift, which have remained influential until the present day.
But because the direct evidence for Old High German consists solely of manuscripts produced in a few major ecclesiastical centres, there is no isogloss information of the sort on which modern dialect maps are based.
For this reason the dialects may be termed "monastery dialects" German Klosterdialekte. The main dialects, with their bishoprics and monasteries : .
The continued existence of a West Frankish dialect in the Western, Romanized part of Francia is uncertain.
Claims that this might have been the language of the Carolingian court or that it is attested in the Ludwigslied , whose presence in a French manuscript suggests bilingualism , are controversial.
Old High German literacy is a product of the monasteries, notably at St. Gallen , Reichenau Island and Fulda. Its origins lie in the establishment of the German church by Saint Boniface in the mid 8th century, and it was further encouraged during the Carolingian Renaissance in the 9th.
The dedication to the preservation of Old High German epic poetry among the scholars of the Carolingian Renaissance was significantly greater than could be suspected from the meagre survivals we have today less than lines in total between the Hildebrandslied and the Muspilli.
Einhard tells how Charlemagne himself ordered that the epic lays should be collected for posterity. Thus, it was Charlemagne's weak successor, Louis the Pious , who destroyed his father's collection of epic poetry on account of its pagan content.
Rabanus Maurus , a student of Alcuin 's and abbot at Fulda from , was an important advocate of the cultivation of German literacy.
Among his students were Walafrid Strabo and Otfrid of Weissenburg. While there are a few runic inscriptions from the pre-OHG period,  all other OHG texts are written with the Latin alphabet , which, however, was ill-suited for representing some of the sounds of OHG.
This led to considerable variations in spelling conventions, as individual scribes and scriptoria had to develop their own solutions to these problems.
The charts show the vowel and consonant systems of the East Franconian dialect in the 9th century. Dictionaries and grammars of OHG often use the spellings of the Tatian as a substitute for genuine standardised spellings, and these have the advantage of being recognizably close to the Middle High German forms of words, particularly with respect to the consonants.
Old High German had six phonemic short vowels and five phonemic long vowels. Both occurred in stressed and unstressed syllables.
In addition, there were six diphthongs. The result of this sound change is that the consonantal system of German remains different from all other West Germanic languages, including English and Low German.
Germanic had a simple two-tense system, with forms for a present and preterite. These were inherited by Old High German, but in addition OHG developed three periphrastic tenses : the perfect , pluperfect and future.
Initially the past participle retained its original function as an adjective and showed case and gender endings - for intransitive verbs the nominative, for transitive verbs the accusative.
After thie thö argangana warun ahtu taga Tatian , 7,1 "When eight days had passed", literally "After that then passed away were eight days" Latin: Et postquam consummati sunt dies octo Luke .
In time, however, these endings fell out of use and the participle came to be seen no longer as an adjective but as part of the verb, as in Modern German.
This development is generally taken to be the result of a need to translate Latin forms,  but parallels in other Germanic languages particularly Gothic, where the Biblical texts were translated from Greek, not Latin raise the possibility that it was an independent development.
Germanic also had no future tense, but again OHG created periphrastic forms, using an auxiliary verb skulan Modern German sollen and the infinitive, or werden and the present participle:.
Thu scalt beran einan alawaltenden Otfrid's Evangelienbuch I,5,23 "You will bear an almighty [one]" Inti nu uuirdist thu suigenti' Tatian 2,9 "And now you will start to fall silent" Latin: Et ecce eris tacens Luke .
The present tense continued to be used alongside these new forms to indicate future time as it still is in Modern German. Any description of OHG syntax faces a fundamental problem: texts translated from or based on a Latin original will be syntactically influenced by their source,  while the verse works may show patterns that are determined by the needs of rhyme and metre, or that represent literary archaisms.
Two differences from the modern language are the possibility of omitting a subject pronoun and lack of definite and indefinite articles.
Both features are exemplified in the start of the 8th century Alemannic creed from St Gall :  kilaubu in got vater almahticun Modern German, Ich glaube an Gott den allmächtigen Vater ; English "I believe in God the almighty father".
By the end of the OHG period, however, use of a subject pronoun has become obligatory, while the definite article has developed from the original demonstrative pronoun der, diu, daz  and the numeral ein "one" has come into use as an indefinite article.
The early part of the period saw considerable missionary activity, and by the whole of the Frankish Empire had, in principle, been Christianized.
All the manuscripts which contain Old High German texts were written in ecclesiastical scriptoria by scribes whose main task was writing in Latin rather than German.
Consequently, the majority of Old High German texts are religious in nature and show strong influence of ecclesiastical Latin on the vocabulary.
In fact, most surviving prose texts are translations of Latin originals. Even secular works such as the Hildebrandslied are often preserved only because they were written on spare sheets in religious codices.
The earliest Old High German text is generally taken to be the Abrogans , a Latin—Old High German glossary variously dated between and , probably from Reichenau.
The 8th century Merseburg Incantations are the only remnant of pre-Christian German literature. The earliest texts not dependent on Latin originals would seem to be the Hildebrandslied and the Wessobrunn Prayer , both recorded in manuscripts of the early 9th century, though the texts are assumed to derive from earlier copies.
The Bavarian Muspilli is the sole survivor of what must have been a vast oral tradition. Other important works are the Evangelienbuch Gospel harmony of Otfrid von Weissenburg , the short but splendid Ludwigslied and the 9th century Georgslied.
The boundary to Early Middle High German from c. Because these are translations of a liturgical text, they are best not regarded as examples of idiomatic language, but they do show dialect variation very clearly.
Pater noster, qui in caelis es, sanctificetur nomen tuum, adveniat regnum tuum, fiat voluntas tua, sicut in caelo, et in terra, panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie, et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris, et ne inducas nos in temptationem, sed libera nos a malo.
Fat er unseer, thu pist in himile, uuihi namun dinan, qhueme rihhi di i n, uuerde uuillo di i n, so in himile sosa in erdu.
Fater unser, du pist in himilum. Kauuihit si namo din. Piqhueme rihhi din, Uuesa din uuillo, sama so in himile est, sama in erdu.
Pilipi unsraz emizzigaz kip uns eogauuanna. Enti flaz uns unsro sculdi, sama so uuir flazzames unsrem scolom.
Enti ni princ unsih in chorunka. Uzzan kaneri unsih fona allem sunton. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Old German disambiguation.
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Language family. Writing system. Further information: Francia , Carolingian Empire , and Frankish language. Further information: Proto-Germanic language and Germanic languages.
Main article: High German consonant shift. Main article: Old High German declension. Further information: Old High German literature.
Glottolog 3. An Old High-German Primer. Google Books: Oxford at Clarendon Press. Retrieved 11 November Lexikon der Germanistischen Linguistik 2nd rev.
Althochdeutsches Lesebuch 17th ed. It also contains close similarities in vocabulary to Danish , Norwegian and Swedish , although they belong to the North Germanic group.
German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language , after English. German is also the second most widely taught foreign language in the EU after English at primary school level but third after English and French at lower secondary level , the fourth most widely taught non-English language in the US after Spanish , French and American Sign Language , the second most commonly used scientific language and the third most widely used language on websites after English and Russian.
The German-speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of annual publication of new books, with one tenth of all books including e-books in the world being published in German.
German is an inflected language with four cases for nouns, pronouns and adjectives nominative, accusative, genitive, dative , three genders masculine, feminine, neuter , two numbers singular, plural , and strong and weak verbs.
It derives the majority of its vocabulary from the ancient Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Some of its vocabulary is derived from Latin and Greek , and fewer are borrowed from French and Modern English.
German is a pluricentric language , with its standardized variants being German , Austrian , and Swiss Standard German.
It is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialects , with many unique varieties existing in Europe and other parts of the world. Italy recognizes all the German-speaking minorities in its territory as national historic minorities and protects the varieties of German spoken in several regions of Northern Italy besides South Tyrol.
Low German or Plautdietsch  can be described as either "languages" or "dialects". The first of these branches survives in modern Danish , Swedish , Norwegian , Faroese , and Icelandic , all of which are descended from Old Norse.
The East Germanic languages are now extinct, and Gothic is the only language in this branch which survives in written texts.
The West Germanic languages, however, have undergone extensive dialectal subdivision and are now represented in modern languages such as English , German, Dutch , Yiddish , Afrikaans , and others.
Within the West Germanic language dialect continuum, the Benrath and Uerdingen lines running through Düsseldorf - Benrath and Krefeld - Uerdingen , respectively serve to distinguish the Germanic dialects that were affected by the High German consonant shift south of Benrath from those that were not north of Uerdingen.
The various regional dialects spoken south of these lines are grouped as High German dialects nos.
This classification indicates their historical descent from dialects spoken by the Irminones also known as the Elbe group , Ingvaeones or North Sea Germanic group , and Istvaeones or Weser-Rhine group.
German is therefore closely related to the other languages based on High German dialects, such as Luxembourgish based on Central Franconian dialects — no.
Also closely related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countries , such as Swiss German Alemannic dialects — no.
After these High German dialects, standard German is less closely related to languages based on Low Franconian dialects e.
As has been noted, the former of these dialect types is Istvaeonic and the latter Ingvaeonic, whereas the High German dialects are all Irminonic: the differences between these languages and standard German are therefore considerable.
These Anglo-Frisian dialects are all members of the Ingvaeonic family of West Germanic languages, which did not take part in the High German consonant shift.
This sound shift involved a drastic change in the pronunciation of both voiced and voiceless stop consonants b , d , g , and p , t , k , respectively.
The primary effects of the shift were the following:. While there is written evidence of the Old High German language in several Elder Futhark inscriptions from as early as the 6th century AD such as the Pforzen buckle , the Old High German period is generally seen as beginning with the Abrogans written c.
After the Abrogans , the first coherent works written in OHG appear in the 9th century, chief among them being the Muspilli , the Merseburg Charms , and the Hildebrandslied , as well as a number of other religious texts the Georgslied , the Ludwigslied , the Evangelienbuch , and translated hymns and prayers.
Of particular interest to scholars, however, has been the Hildebrandslied , a secular epic poem telling the tale of an estranged father and son unknowingly meeting each other in battle.
Linguistically this text is highly interesting due to the mixed use of Old Saxon and Old High German dialects in its composition.
The written works of this period stem mainly from the Alamanni , Bavarian , and Thuringian groups, all belonging to the Elbe Germanic group Irminones , which had settled in what is now southern-central Germany and Austria between the 2nd and 6th centuries during the great migration.
In general, the surviving texts of OHG show a wide range of dialectal diversity with very little written uniformity. The early written tradition of OHG survived mostly through monasteries and scriptoria as local translations of Latin originals; as a result, the surviving texts are written in highly disparate regional dialects and exhibit significant Latin influence, particularly in vocabulary.
The German language through the OHG period was still predominantly a spoken language, with a wide range of dialects and a much more extensive oral tradition than a written one.
Having just emerged from the High German consonant shift, OHG was also a relatively new and volatile language still undergoing a number of phonetic , phonological , morphological , and syntactic changes.
The scarcity of written work, instability of the language, and widespread illiteracy of the time explain the lack of standardization up to the end of the OHG period in While there is no complete agreement over the dates of the Middle High German MHG period, it is generally seen as lasting from to Whereas during the Old High German period the Germanic tribes extended only as far east as the Elbe and Saale rivers, the MHG period saw a number of these tribes expanding beyond this eastern boundary into Slavic territory known as the Ostsiedlung.
With the increasing wealth and geographic spread of the Germanic groups came greater use of German in the courts of nobles as the standard language of official proceedings and literature.
While these efforts were still regionally bound, German began to be used in place of Latin for certain official purposes, leading to a greater need for regularity in written conventions.
While the major changes of the MHG period were socio-cultural, German was still undergoing significant linguistic changes in syntax, phonetics, and morphology as well e.
A great wealth of texts survives from the MHG period. Significantly, these texts include a number of impressive secular works, such as the Nibelungenlied , an epic poem telling the story of the dragon -slayer Siegfried c.
Also noteworthy is the Sachsenspiegel , the first book of laws written in Middle Low German c. The abundance and especially the secular character of the literature of the MHG period demonstrate the beginnings of a standardized written form of German, as well as the desire of poets and authors to be understood by individuals on supra-dialectal terms.
While these states were still under the control of the Holy Roman Empire and far from any form of unification, the desire for a cohesive written language that would be understandable across the many German-speaking principalities and kingdoms was stronger than ever.
As a spoken language German remained highly fractured throughout this period, with a vast number of often mutually incomprehensible regional dialects being spoken throughout the German states; the invention of the printing press c.
One of the central events in the development of ENHG was the publication of Luther's translation of the Bible into German the New Testament was published in ; the Old Testament was published in parts and completed in Copies of Luther's Bible featured a long list of glosses for each region, translating words which were unknown in the region into the regional dialect.
Luther said the following concerning his translation method:. One who would talk German does not ask the Latin how he shall do it; he must ask the mother in the home, the children on the streets, the common man in the market-place and note carefully how they talk, then translate accordingly.
They will then understand what is said to them because it is German. When Christ says 'ex abundantia cordis os loquitur,' I would translate, if I followed the papists, aus dem Überflusz des Herzens redet der Mund.
But tell me is this talking German? What German understands such stuff? No, the mother in the home and the plain man would say, Wesz das Herz voll ist, des gehet der Mund über.
With Luther's rendering of the Bible in the vernacular, German asserted itself against the dominance of Latin as a legitimate language for courtly, literary, and now ecclesiastical subject-matter.
Furthermore, his Bible was ubiquitous in the German states: nearly every household possessed a copy.
German was the language of commerce and government in the Habsburg Empire , which encompassed a large area of Central and Eastern Europe.
Until the midth century, it was essentially the language of townspeople throughout most of the Empire. Its use indicated that the speaker was a merchant or someone from an urban area, regardless of nationality.
Others, such as Pozsony German: Pressburg , now Bratislava , were originally settled during the Habsburg period and were primarily German at that time.
The most comprehensive guide to the vocabulary of the German language is found within the Deutsches Wörterbuch. This dictionary was created by the Brothers Grimm and is composed of 16 parts which were issued between and In , the 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a complete standardization of the German language in its written form and the Duden Handbook was declared its standard definition.
In Northern Germany, Standard German was a foreign language to most inhabitants, whose native dialects were subsets of Low German.
It was usually encountered only in writing or formal speech; in fact, most of Standard German was a written language, not identical to any spoken dialect, throughout the German-speaking area until well into the 19th century.
Official revisions of some of the rules from were not issued until the controversial German orthography reform of was made the official standard by governments of all German-speaking countries.
Approximate distribution of native German speakers assuming a rounded total of 95 million worldwide.
Due to the German diaspora as well as German being the second most widely spoken language in Europe and the third most widely taught foreign language in the US  and the EU in upper secondary education  amongst others, the geographical distribution of German speakers or "Germanophones" spans all inhabited continents.
As for the number of speakers of any language worldwide, an assessment is always compromised by the lack of sufficient, reliable data.
In Europe, German is the second most widely spoken mother tongue after Russian and the second biggest language in terms of overall speakers after English.
The area in central Europe where the majority of the population speaks German as a first language and has German as a co- official language is called the "German Sprachraum ".
It comprises an estimated 88 million native speakers and 10 million who speak German as a second language e.
Although expulsions and forced assimilation after the two World Wars greatly diminished them, minority communities of mostly bilingual German native speakers exist in areas both adjacent to and detached from the Sprachraum.
In France , the High German varieties of Alsatian and Moselle Franconian are identified as " regional languages ", but the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages of has not yet been ratified by the government.
Namibia was a colony of the German Empire from to Mostly descending from German settlers who immigrated during this time, 25—30, people still speak German as a native tongue today.
Although it is nearly extinct today, some older Namibians still have some knowledge of it. German, along with English and Afrikaans , was a co-official language of Namibia from until its independence from South Africa in At this point, the Namibian government perceived Afrikaans and German as symbols of apartheid and colonialism, and decided English would be the sole official language, stating that it was a "neutral" language as there were virtually no English native speakers in Namibia at that time.
Today, German is used in a wide variety of spheres, especially business and tourism, as well as the churches most notably the German-speaking Evangelical Lutheran Church in Namibia GELK , schools e.
Hoffmann , radio the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation produces radio programs in German , and music e. The Allgemeine Zeitung is one of the three biggest newspapers in Namibia and the only German-language daily in Africa.
Mostly originating from different waves of immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries, an estimated 12, people speak German or a German variety as a first language in South Africa.
The South African constitution identifies German as a "commonly used" language and the Pan South African Language Board is obligated to promote and ensure respect for it.
In the United States, the states of North Dakota and South Dakota are the only states where German is the most common language spoken at home after English.
The impact of nineteenth century German immigration to southern Chile was such that Valdivia was for a while a Spanish-German bilingual city with "German signboards and placards alongside the Spanish".
In Australia , the state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the s from Prussia particularly the Silesia region.
With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with Australian English , a unique dialect known as Barossa German developed, spoken predominantly in the Barossa Valley near Adelaide.
Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War I , due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action.
It continued to be used as a first language into the 20th century, but its use is now limited to a few older speakers. German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was less pronounced than migration from Britain, Ireland, and perhaps even Scandinavia.
Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century.
German speakers settled principally in Puhoi , Nelson , and Gore. At the last census , 36, people in New Zealand spoke German, making it the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language.
There is also an important German creole being studied and recovered, named Unserdeutsch , spoken in the former German colony of German New Guinea , across Micronesia and in northern Australia i.
The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars.
Like French and Spanish , German has become a classic second foreign language in the western world, as English Spanish in the US is well established as the first foreign language.
According to a survey, 47 million people within the EU i. The basis of Standard German is the Luther Bible , which was translated by Martin Luther and which had originated from the Saxon court language it being a convenient norm.
It is important to note, however, that the colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech.
Standard German differs regionally among German-speaking countries in vocabulary and some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography.
This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only somewhat influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct.
German is thus considered a pluricentric language. In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties depending on the circumstances.
In German linguistics , German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German.
They differ only slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.
In the German-speaking parts of Switzerland , mixtures of dialect and standard are very seldom used, and the use of Standard German is largely restricted to the written language.
Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, while Austrian Standard German is officially used in the Austrian education system.
A mixture of dialect and standard does not normally occur in Northern Germany either. Because their linguistic distance is greater, they do not mesh with Standard German the way that High German dialects such as Bavarian, Swabian, and Hessian can.
The German dialects are the traditional local varieties of the language; many of them are not mutually intelligibile with standard German, and they have great differences in lexicon , phonology , and syntax.
If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages for instance in the Ethnologue.
However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible.
Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League.
It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century. In , the Luther Bible was published.
The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German. It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties.
The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature. Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.
The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.
Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift.
However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II.
The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund. The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German.
Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language.
These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.
The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet.
Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as. Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects.
They consist of the East and South Franconian dialects. The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany.
These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland. The largest cities in the East Franconian area are Nuremberg and Würzburg.
South Franconian is mainly spoken in northern Baden-Württemberg in Germany, but also in the northeasternmost part of the region of Alsace in France.
While these dialects are considered as dialects of German in Baden-Württemberg, they are considered as dialects of Alsatian in Alsace most Alsatian dialects are Low Alemannic , however.
The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn. The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west and the Bavarian dialects in the east.
The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace. The largest cities in the Alemannic area are Stuttgart and Zürich.
The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich. German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection , with three grammatical genders ; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.
German nouns inflect by case, gender, and number:. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin , Ancient Greek , and Sanskrit , and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English , modern Icelandic , or Russian.
The three genders have collapsed in the plural. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive and in the dative only in fixed or archaic expressions , and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.
Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative, and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular.
The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: -s, -es, -n, -ns, -en, -ens, -e.
In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.
Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second: Hundehütte "dog hut"; specifically: "dog kennel".
Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Baumhaus "tree house".
Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory see also English compounds. The longest German word verified to be actually in albeit very limited use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz , which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duties assignment law" [from Rind cattle , Fleisch meat , Etikettierung s labelling , Überwachung s supervision , Aufgaben duties , Übertragung s assignment , Gesetz law ].
However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward, or even satirical.
The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes. Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.
Other examples include the following: haften to stick , ver haften to detain ; kaufen to buy , ver kaufen to sell ; hören to hear , auf hören to cease ; fahren to drive , er fahren to experience.
Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function. In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".
For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? Literal: "Go you with? German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.
For polar questions , exclamations, and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.
German requires a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence.
The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are several possibilities:. The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument.
In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood.
The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely.
When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end. This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense.
Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself.
The auxiliary verb is still in second position. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end.
For example, the English sentence "Should he go home? Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end.
Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: "What did you bring that book that I do not like to be read to out of up for?
German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end. Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.
In these constructions, the past participle formed with ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. The order at the end of such strings is subject to variation, but the second one in the last example is unusual.
Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.
Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.
Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.
During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.
The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words.
The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century.
Thus, Notker Labeo was able to translate Aristotelian treatises into pure Old High German in the decades after the year Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words that are deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.
As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek.
These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly.
The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate. The Deutsches Wörterbuch German Dictionary initiated by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm already contained over , headwords in its first edition.
The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.
The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.
As of August [update] , it was in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.
The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.
The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.
It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.
Since the 39th edition in the orthography of the ÖWB has been adjusted to the German spelling reform of The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol.
This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en , German verbs are indicated by a hyphen after their stems.
Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns. German is written in the Latin alphabet. Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.
In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces. For example, "toilet bowl cleaner".
Umlaut vowels ä, ö, ü are commonly transcribed with ae, oe, and ue if the umlauts are not available on the keyboard or other medium used.
Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.
German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available, because they are a makeshift and not proper spelling.
In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e. There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence.
Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e. Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.
As an example in a telephone book Ärzte occurs after Adressenverlage but before Anlagenbauer because Ä is replaced by Ae.
In a dictionary Ärzte comes after Arzt , but in some dictionaries Ärzte and all other words starting with Ä may occur after all words starting with A.
Written German also typically uses an alternative opening inverted comma quotation mark as in "Guten Morgen!
Until the early 20th century, German was mostly printed in blackletter typefaces mostly in Fraktur , but also in Schwabacher and written in corresponding handwriting for example Kurrent and Sütterlin.
These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.
The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.
The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.
Many Antiqua typefaces also include the long s. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.
The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.
In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated; however, in , many of the old comma rules were again put in force.
Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.
In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.
Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.
In some cases, there are regional differences. In central Germany Hesse , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short.
The same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region. German vowels can form the following digraphs in writing and diphthongs in pronunciation ; note that the pronunciation of some of them ei, äu, eu is very different from what one would expect when considering the component letters:.
With approximately 26 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.
The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below.